Category: Technology

Zero-Emission Trucks to Dominate Californian Landscape by 2050

by Saarang Kashyap

On Thursday, June 25, California adopted a landmark rule requiring more than half of all trucks sold in the state to be zero-emissions by 2035, a move that is expected to improve local air quality, rein in greenhouse gas emissions, and sharply curtail the state’s dependence on oil.

The rule, as stated by Independent, is “the first in the United States, represents a victory for communities that have long suffered from truck emissions — particularly pollution from the diesel trucks that feed the sprawling hubs that serve the state’s booming e-commerce industry. On one freeway in the Inland Empire region of Southern California, near the nation’s largest concentration of Amazon warehouses, a community group recently counted almost 1,200 delivery trucks passing in one hour.”

It’s a bold move that should help curb one of the worst-polluting sectors of the transportation industry. Despite making up only 7 percent of vehicles on the road in California, diesel trucks account for 70 percent of the state’s smog-causing pollution and 80 percent of diesel soot emitted, according to CARB. As mentioned in The Verge, “California’s new rule could have much broader consequences, too, thanks to its role as a standard-bearer for clean air regulations. Fourteen other states have adopted its progressive ZEV program for passenger vehicles, which was launched in the early 1990s and has spurred automakers into developing hybrid and fully electric cars. Last year, in the face of the Trump administration’s rollback of an Obama-era fuel economy standard meant to fight the climate crisis, California developed its own rule that Ford, Volkswagen, BMW, and Honda have signed onto.”

“For decades, while the automobile has grown cleaner and more efficient, the other half of our transportation system has barely moved the needle on clean air,” Mary Nichols, the head of CARB, said in a statement. “Diesel vehicles are the workhorses of the economy, and we need them to be part of the solution to persistent pockets of dirty air in some of our most disadvantaged communities.” In order to improve our current climate change crisis, we need other states to accept California’s progressive ideas with regards to transportation to mitigate pollution as best as possible.

NASA Finishes Testing with Sentinel-6 Satellite That Can Help Learn More about Preventing Global Warming

by Anshul Dash

NASA has recently finished testing the Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich satellite, which is set to launch in November. The satellite’s purpose is to find out more about global warming’s effects on the oceans, coastlines, and weather by collecting accurate data on sea level. Rigorous testing was done to ensure that the satellite can perform well in the harsh conditions of space.

The Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich satellite was built as a part of the Copernicus Sentinel-6/Jason-CS (Continuity of Service) mission. The mission is an effort by the US and Europe to launch two identical satellites five years apart. The satellite will join an already existing set of satellites called the Copernicus Constellation of Satellites. This set of satellites represents the European Union’s Observation Program. Once the satellites reach orbit, they will start collecting sea level data for almost all of the world’s oceans, at 90%. The data collected will be added to a 30-year-old database created by the US and the European Union. In addition to collecting sea level data, the satellite will measure the temperature and humidity of Earth’s atmosphere, which in turn provides useful information for hurricane predictions and weather forecasts in general. Scientists’ strong belief in the connection between the ocean and the atmosphere is the main reason behind collecting this data. Heat causes sea levels to rise since seawater expands in higher temperatures.

The first test that the engineers performed was the vibration test. They replicated the shaking movement of the satellite to simulate its condition when attached to the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket during its blast into orbit. The satellite was then placed in a big vacuum chamber and exposed to extreme temperatures that it could encounter in space, from 65 to minus 180 degrees Celsius (149 to minus 292 degrees Fahrenheit). The second test was the acoustics test, which was conducted to make the satellite could withstand loud noises that might occur during the launch. The engineers tested this by placing the satellite in a chamber with enormous speakers. They then blasted the speakers with four 1 minute intervals of sound, with the loudest interval going to 140 decibels. The final test performed was the electromagnetic compatibility test. This test ensured that the electronics and sensors on the satellite wouldn’t interfere with each other while collecting data. This test was done differently than planned due to social distancing rules being enforced because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the tests were being conducted in Germany, the engineers in California worked during the night, from midnight to 10 AM. They communicated with their colleagues from Germany with phone calls, video conferences, chat rooms, and text messages. However, the test was still a success despite the inconveniences.

Since the Copernicus Sentinel-6/Jason-CS mission is a US-European Union joint mission, many space agencies are taking part in this mission. NASA is contributing to this mission by equipping each of the Sentinel-6 satellites with three science instrumental payloads: the Global Navigation Satellite System – Radio Occultation, the Advanced Microwave Radiometer, and the Laser Reflector Array. In addition to providing these payloads, NASA is also providing launch services for these satellites, ground control services, science data processors for these instruments, and general support for the international Ocean Surface Topography Science Team.

The Hidden Carbon Footprint Behind Cryptocurrency

by Suraj Gangaram

Due to the market meltdown in early March, the price of a cryptocurrency referred to as Bitcoin dropped by $1000 within less than a day. As a result of Bitcoin’s extensive power consumption and carbon footprint, people adhering to the ESG (environmental, social, and governance) criteria have sparked debate over the practicality of it in today’s day and age. The presence of the coronavirus situation especially begs the question:

How are cryptocurrencies in general going to move forward?

Believe it or not, Bitcoin, a type of cryptocurrency which operates independently of a central bank, has a giant carbon footprint associated with producing it. The digital currency offers relative anonymity, does not charge sales tax and is free from bank and government interferences. Transactions are digitally stored as “blocks” in a chain as opposed to a traditional centralized location as in banks; the “winner” is given the right to add another block of data to the chain, and is rewarded with a new Bitcoin. Bitcoin, currently sitting at a value of around $7000, is infamous for its energy consumption, demanding a plethora of tailor-made computers to carry out its arduous mining process which requires complex mathematical computing. As part of an attempt to save on their expenditures, mining companies have relocated their computers, known as ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits), to warehouses with access to cheap electricity. Currently, over 50% of all mining occurs in China’s Sichuan province, which has a superabundant capacity for hydropower. Seemingly just another financial trading tool, it consumes as much electricity as the country Chile, with nearly 19 million inhabitants. Researchers calculated that the Bitcoin network consumed 31.3 Terawatt-hours (1 TWh = 3.6*10^15 J) of electricity and 17.3 megatons (17.3 million tons of TNT) of CO2 in 2018 alone.

Companies are cognizant of the impact of crypto-currency production on climate change as it works its way into becoming the currency of the future. A Canadian company, Upstream Data, has invented a method of diminishing the amount of methane vented into the atmosphere from oil wells through utilizing the fuels as a generator for mining computers. Steve Barbour, the company’s founder, has described the venture as one of “a low capital…for an oil company.” Looking to set the path forward for ESG-minded individuals, mining companies are looking to reconfigure the processes of producing crypto-currency, before climate change demands them to do so.

NASA’s New 3D Picture of Methane Can Track Sources and Movement Around Globe

by Anshul Dash

NASA has developed a 3-dimensional picture of the Earth with methane concentrations. This picture shows the numerous sources of methane on the ground and its behavior as it moves through the atmosphere. NASA has combined multiple data sets from emissions inventories, including fossil fuel, agricultural, biomass burning and biofuels, and simulations of wetland sources into a high-resolution computer model.

Methane is the second-most influential greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, responsible for 20-30% of Earth’s rising temperatures. Methane concentrations have more than doubled since the Industrial Revolution, accelerating the increase in global temperatures. Methane is more efficient at trapping heat than carbon dioxide; however, the lifetime of a methane molecule is shorter than that of carbon dioxide, which is why carbon dioxide is still the most prominent contributor to global warming.

In addition to fossil fuel activities, sources of methane also include the ocean, flooded soils in vegetated wetlands along rivers and lakes, agriculture, such as rice cultivation, and the stomachs of ruminant livestock, including cattle. It is estimated that up to 60% of methane emission is the result of human activity. As human populations continue to grow, changes in energy use, agriculture and rice cultivation, livestock raising will influence methane emissions.

NASA’s 3D model can estimate methane emissions based on known processes for certain land-cover types, such as wetlands. The model can also simulate the atmospheric chemistry that breaks down methane and removes it from the air. It also shows that once methane emissions are lofted up into the atmosphere, high-altitude winds can transport it far beyond their sources.

The model shows several locations that stand out. In South America, the Amazon River basin and its adjacent wetlands flood seasonally, creating an oxygen-deprived environment that is a significant source of methane. In India, rice cultivation and livestock are the two driving sources of methane. China’s economic expansion and large population drive the high demand for oil, gas and coal exploration for industry as well as agriculture production, which are its underlying sources of methane.

The modeling of methane concentrations around the globe also helps NASA plan future field and satellite missions. One of the satellites that NASA is planning to launch in 2023 is called GeoCarb. The satellite will provide space-based observations of methane in the atmosphere over much of the western hemisphere.

Overall, with a more detailed understanding of methane concentrations worldwide, the doubts scientists had previously can be cleared by giving a qualitative understanding of how methane moves around the atmosphere and where it’s produced. By predicting where methane will end up in the atmosphere and where its sources are located, scientists can mitigate methane emissions, thus slowing down the effects of climate change.

The Battle Against Misinformation on Climate Change

by Kaushal Kumar

The fight against climate change is one that our world is going to have to fight against for years, and it is essential that people have an honest understanding about what climate change is and its implications so they can understand the severity of the issue. This is why it is so important that when people are exposed to the topic of climate change, the information that they are exposed to must be logical and factually correct.

Recently a nonprofit called “Greenpeace” has called out YouTube for promoting ads that deny climate change or promote misinformation about climate change on their videos. The nonprofit claims that not only are the ads misleading, but YouTube is drawing revenue by displaying the ads, and are in turn making money off of the spread of untrue claims surrounding climate change (NBC).

But the ads are not the only place where climate change deniers go to spread misinformation. According to Time, when searching “Global Warming” on YouTube more than 15% of the top 100 video responses are some form of climate change denial, or attack against the idea of climate change.

So What?

These ads and videos have a bigger impact than a company generating revenue off of lies, and that is the effect that they may be having on the audiences of the videos. 81% of parents say that they let their children watch videos on Youtube. This means that there is a large audience of impressionable kids who cannot discern between the lies that these advertisers are spreading and the truth about these topics. By exposing children, and even unknowing adults to this misinformation, YouTube is helping fuel these fraudulent campaigns, making it harder and harder for our world to win its fight against climate change, one that we cannot afford to lose.

Can Carbon Capture Stop Climate Change?

by Kunaal Venugopal

Carbon Capturing is the process of capturing Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and storing it where it cannot get out, typically deep underground. However, the CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) movement has not gained much traction, even with the first CCS projects dating back to 1996 in Norway. The International Energy Agency set a goal that 23,500 million tons of CO2 should be captured and stored by the end of the decade, but just 2 percent of this goal has been reached thus far.

Why has Carbon Capturing and Storage not been readily adopted across the world?

A major concern with Carbon Capture is the substantial cost it has in the short-term. In the long-term, CO2 that is stored deep underground may eventually leak, which would lead to a plethora of problems, including the question of who would have to pay to fix the leaks. Furthermore, the risks of leaks are exaggerated by those who fear fossil fuels and believe that CCS is not a viable solution to the issue of greenhouse gas emissions. Many also relate CCS to fracking due to the underground aspect. Fracking has a much higher risk than CCS, as it can lead to earthquakes and oil spills, while CCS leaks could only put CO2 in the atmosphere that would have been there without CCS.

Ultimately, when considering solutions to greenhouse gas emissions, we must consider the most effective yet feasible option. For industrial plants, for example, CCS is the only solution to reducing emissions. When taking into account a cost-benefit analysis of CCS, the potential of reducing a significant amount of emissions with the risk of leaks outweighs the option of allowing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere without mitigation attempts. However, with the exponential rise in greenhouse gas emissions in the world, we must ask ourselves if Carbon Capturing and Storage is the solution.

Scientists Claim They Can Generate Energy “out of thin air”

by Kunaal Venugopal

Electrical engineer Jun Yao and microbiologist Derek Lovley at the University of Massachusetts Amherst claim to have created a device that can generate energy “out of thin air.” This device, which they call an “Air-gen,” works with electrically conductive nanowires produced by the microbe Geobacter. Geobacter is useful in bioremediation, “the treatment of pollutants or waste by the use of microorganisms that break down undesirable substances” (Merriam-Webster). The nanowires connect to electrodes in such a way that they are able to generate electrical current from the inherently present water vapor in the atmosphere. The scientists expect to bring their invention to commercial scale in the near future, with an eventual goal of integrating “large systems that will make a major contribution to sustainable energy production.”

Lovley and Yao are not unversed in the applications of nanowires. Indeed, it was Lovley who discovered the Geobacter microbe over 30 years ago in the Potomac River, and eventually its capability to produce the electrically conductive wires credited with the creation of the “Air-gen.” Yao had previously used silicon nanowires to engineer electronic devices at Harvard University. The two teamed up to see if they could implement their prior research into creating useful electronic devices, such as their “Air-gen.”

Ultimately, it is uncertain whether or not Yao and Lovley’s invention can truly provide an infinite source of renewable energy. The problem with previous renditions of moisture-based energy-producing technologies was the ephemeral burst of power that could not effectively power many devices, but the “Air-gen” has addressed this issue. It’s unknown whether or not this technology could completely replace fossil fuels’ role in the world, but its potential is especially promising.

Bangladeshi Government Providing Solar Power to 20 Million in Clean Energy Effort

by Arun Balaji

The Bangladeshi government, in partnership with World Bank Energy, other developmental agencies and the private sector, are providing clean and reusable energy to rural Bangladesh in lieu of where traditional powerlines cannot reach. The organization aims to provide reusable energy in the form of solar power to the capacity of 4 million households, of which house 20 million Bangladeshi citizens. In a region that is largely developing due to lack of resources, the organization stepped in to provide the greatest resource to help the largely farming and manual labor community– now, the majority of their labor is automated and clean, thanks to the use of irrigation pumps that 6,000 farmers can now claim ownership of. 

World Bank Energy is a subsidiary of the World Bank group, whose mission claims that “Access to energy is essential to reduce poverty.” The company achieves their mission by providing clean and sustainable forms of energy to areas that don’t have energy in largely developing countries. What’s significant is that Bangladesh, with the organization’s support, is not only bringing electricity to their people, but they are achieving it sustainably, by means of solar power, giving a positive push towards lowering their carbon footprint.

Bangladesh has long been a developing country that is recently achieving prominence. Classified as a middle-class economy with a population of 128 million, it is surprising to find that 25% of rural Bangladesh do not have access to a sustainable power source. However, their outlook for the next 10 years is very lucrative. By 2030, Bangladesh wants to have reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 20%, and produce over 30 GW of energy by solar power. They follow in line with several other countries like India and Great Britain in the hunt for a zero-emission country, a prospective outcome to solve the climate change issues that face us today.

Meet the World’s Greenest Car: Sony’s Fisker Ocean

by Sudhit Rao

Tesla’s pure domination of the electric car market might soon come to an end with the unveiling of Sony’s new Fisker Ocean, an affordable electric sports utility vehicle. The Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2020 featured a countless number of great products but Sony’s Fisker Ocean certainly stole the show as most surprising. The electric car boasts a price of just $29,999 after federal tax incentives, cutting off Tesla’s most popular and affordable car, the Model 3 priced at $35,000. 

Headquartered at the heart of technological innovation, California, Fisker Ocean’s mission runs parallel with creating a cleaner and greener future for the world. The car company hopes to “Provide the world’s most sustainable vehicles through an e-mobility service” and envisions “A clean future for all”(Fisker Ocean).  

While their purpose is certainly in the hopes of a better, more green future, how does the company hope to accomplish this? Fisker Ocean implements various techniques such as recycling and renewable power to do just that. The car’s exterior body is created from recycled materials such as discarded fishing nets and plastics that would instead be left in the ocean, unused. The interior of the car consists of recycled polyester such as T-Shirts and fibers and recycled plastics. This has enormous benefits to the environment as the polyester manufacturing process primarily requires gasoline. To top that, Fisker Ocean is the first car to implement a solar roof, claiming that it would provide users with an additional 1,000 miles of range for zero cost. The roof would improve fuel performance as well as reduce the overall CO2 emissions. More information about the sustainability of the car can be found here

Fisker Ocean is a serious contender as a pure electric car due to its affordability, but more importantly, a far more important issue is being tackled by the car company, environmental sustainability. The sustainability of the car can prove extremely beneficial to the environment by reducing carbon emissions and recycling materials that would otherwise go unused but only time will tell if Fisker Ocean is crowned king as the world’s most sustainable car.