Tag: Climate Change

Arctic Circle Reaches ‘All-Time High’ Temperatures

by Daanyal Raja

Within the past week, the Siberian town of Verkhoyansk recorded their temperature to be 38ºC, (approximately 100ºF). The record still needs to be verified, but this temperature is 18ºC higher than the average maximum daily temperature in that area during June. The town of Verkhoyansk has a population of about 1,300 people and faces extreme temperatures year round. Although hot weather is not a rare occurrence in the town and in the Arctic Circle, temperatures have been unusually high in recent months. Throughout March, April, and May, the Copernicus Climate Change service claimed that the average temperature within the circle was approximately 10ºC above average.

Record high temperatures have also become more frequent throughout the region. The small Russian town of Khatanga broke a temperature record of 25.4ºC in May (78ºF), with parts of Siberia recording 30ºC (86ºF) in early June. Dr. Dann Mitchell, an associate professor in atmospheric science at the University of Bristol told BBC, “Year-on-year temperature records are being broken around the world, but the Arctic is warming faster than anywhere else on Earth […] We will see more [records being broken] in the near future.”

Arctic warming leads to the thawing of frozen permafrost below ground. As permafrost thaws, methane and carbon dioxide that were previously locked underground are released into the open air. This worries scientists and meteorologists, as these greenhouse gases can cause more warming and lead the arctic climate into a positive feedback cycle that ultimately ends with more permafrost thawing. Increasing temperatures can also cause reflective land ice in the Arctic to melt more rapidly, which would contribute to rising sea levels. Worse yet, wildfires also must be considered. Last year, wildfires scorched parts of the Arctic, and they were more severe due to high temperatures and strong winds. This year, according to Russia’s emergencies minister, wildfires were ten times larger in Siberia’s Krasnoyarsk region compared to the same time last year.

Zero-Emission Trucks to Dominate Californian Landscape by 2050

by Saarang Kashyap

On Thursday, June 25, California adopted a landmark rule requiring more than half of all trucks sold in the state to be zero-emissions by 2035, a move that is expected to improve local air quality, rein in greenhouse gas emissions, and sharply curtail the state’s dependence on oil.

The rule, as stated by Independent, is “the first in the United States, represents a victory for communities that have long suffered from truck emissions — particularly pollution from the diesel trucks that feed the sprawling hubs that serve the state’s booming e-commerce industry. On one freeway in the Inland Empire region of Southern California, near the nation’s largest concentration of Amazon warehouses, a community group recently counted almost 1,200 delivery trucks passing in one hour.”

It’s a bold move that should help curb one of the worst-polluting sectors of the transportation industry. Despite making up only 7 percent of vehicles on the road in California, diesel trucks account for 70 percent of the state’s smog-causing pollution and 80 percent of diesel soot emitted, according to CARB. As mentioned in The Verge, “California’s new rule could have much broader consequences, too, thanks to its role as a standard-bearer for clean air regulations. Fourteen other states have adopted its progressive ZEV program for passenger vehicles, which was launched in the early 1990s and has spurred automakers into developing hybrid and fully electric cars. Last year, in the face of the Trump administration’s rollback of an Obama-era fuel economy standard meant to fight the climate crisis, California developed its own rule that Ford, Volkswagen, BMW, and Honda have signed onto.”

“For decades, while the automobile has grown cleaner and more efficient, the other half of our transportation system has barely moved the needle on clean air,” Mary Nichols, the head of CARB, said in a statement. “Diesel vehicles are the workhorses of the economy, and we need them to be part of the solution to persistent pockets of dirty air in some of our most disadvantaged communities.” In order to improve our current climate change crisis, we need other states to accept California’s progressive ideas with regards to transportation to mitigate pollution as best as possible.

Changing Climate in the Arctic Causes Spider Boom

by Saarang Kashyap

As the Arctic grows increasingly warm due to climate change, different species reach extinction while others multiply as a now warmer habitat becomes suitable for their survival. Many species of spiders, prominently the wolf spider, have become increasingly abundant as longer summers, wildfires, and ever-earlier snowmelt take over the polar landscape.

It was previously reported that plants bloomed earlier in the season while some animals moved into more mountainous regions due to a warmer climate. A team of researchers led by Toke Høye from the Arctic Research Centre and Department of Bioscience at Aarhus University has now shown that changes are also occurring in the reproduction of invertebrates.

Wolf spiders feed on small organisms such as springtails in the soil. The Independent states that “The spiders were caught in small pitfall traps set up in different vegetation types. The researchers counted the number of eggs in the individual spider’s egg sacs and compared this information with the time of the season that the animal was caught. By looking at the distribution of the number of eggs in the egg sacs throughout the season, the researchers said it became clear that in some summers the spiders produced two egg sacs – a recognized phenomenon in warmer latitudes, but not one which has previously been observed in the Arctic.”

If there are more spiders — or insects — in the future Arctic, it can have an influence on food chains on land. “We can only speculate about how the ecosystems change, but we can now ascertain that changes in the reproduction of species are an important factor to include when we try to understand how Arctic ecosystems react to the rising temperatures on the planet,” Dr Høye said. ScienceDaily mentions that scientists now predict an earlier occurrence of snow disappearance to a greater proportion of spiders that can produce a second clutch of offspring. Only time can tell if new species like the wolf spider will spring up and inhabit a rapidly changing Arctic.

Amazon Renames NHL Stadium “Climate Pledge Arena” to Remind that Urgent Climate Action is Necessary

by Nakul

The National Hockey League (NHL) is set to welcome a new expansion team for the 2021-2022 season, based in Seattle, Washington. While the team is yet to be named, its stadium’s name has recently been decided; previously, the stadium was known as the ‘KeyArena’, but this changed when technology and e-commerce giant Amazon ⁠— whose headquarters lie in Seattle ⁠— acquired the naming rights for the stadium. The company, in accordance with its green initiative announced last year, has decided to name the stadium the ‘Climate Pledge Arena’.

Why did Amazon name a billion-dollar arena after climate change?

Upon first glance, one would have naturally expected Amazon to name the stadium after itself, a conventional, intelligible promotional action. However, many were surprised to hear the news of what the corporation actually named the stadium. Following continued criticism and demand by employees for Amazon to adopt a more eco-friendly means of production, Jeff Bezos and co. announced, in September of 2019, their decision to invest $2 billion in a plan involving the use of advanced technologies in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In fact, the company has the ambitious goal of becoming completely carbon neutral by 2040. Bezos himself announced in February his own fund to combat climate change, the ‘Bezos Earth Fund’, which he put $10 billion of his personal wealth into. As for the stadium itself, it is undergoing renovation evaluated at around $900 million to better fit its eco-friendly name. Bezos announced on Instagram this past Thursday that the stadium will be “the first net-zero carbon certified arena in the world, [will] generate zero waste from operations and events, and [will] use reclaimed rainwater in the ice system to create the greenest ice in the NHL”. These unprecedented operations undoubtedly sound gratifying. Hopefully, Amazon’s steps to alter its energy use and promote the issue of climate change will inspire others to take similar actions.

Aside from hockey, the stadium, with a seating capacity of 18,000, will also serve as the home court of WNBA team Seattle Storm.

The fact that one of the world’s largest companies is acknowledging climate change as a harrowing issue and is taking steps to actually combat the phenomenon is great news for activists, but more importantly, the environment. Although Amazon has been involved in controversy regarding its excessive use of non-renewable resources, ultimately, it is important to acknowledge the changes the company is making.

Ireland Passing Legislation That Will Prioritize Climate Change in Governing

by Anshul Dash

Ireland is currently on the verge of putting climate change at the core of its government. This will likely happen if members of the Green Party vote in favor of a new caucus. The new administration intends to fight climate change by banning gas imports, lower emissions through various rules, and stop drilling for fossil fuels. Despite gaining support from most of the population, there is still some opposition, who claim that there is not enough “progression” being done through these proposed changes. 

Even though Ireland has been known to be a green country, its status of being green has recently been tarnished due to the government’s failure to deal with excess carbon emissions. Compared to other countries in the European Union, Ireland emits the fourth-largest amount of carbon. The Irish government attempted to lower its carbon emissions by forming a target with the European Union to cut emissions by 20%. However, the government failed to meet this target by a large amount. This was mainly because of Ireland’s heavy agriculture and transport. An example of this a growing national dairy herd increasing by more than 25% in the past five years. 

The Green Party has planned steps to meet and even surpass this target. The party plans to propose the Climate Action Law, which will redefine 5-year carbon emission budgets. Scientists have welcomed this law as it has been predicted to cut Ireland’s carbon emissions by 51% by 2030. But despite these beneficial outcomes, there is still opposition to this rule. These members believe that the law does not address social justice, economic strategy, and proper housing. The members of this audience are young people or citizens of Northern Ireland. 

Although there are worries that the opposition might be too much for this law to pass, international support will help the Green Party’s influence expand across the country. This law is crucial to Ireland and the European Union, as less carbon emission will open new pathways for alternatives to fossil fuels. Enforcing this law will motivate scientists to develop more environmental-friendly products to contribute to the decline of carbon emissions. 

Fossil Fuel Use Bounces Back Rapidly Following Ease of Lockdown Restrictions in Several Nations

by Nakul

As several countries gradually continue to recover from the impacts of the coronavirus pandemic, they have eased numerous lockdown restrictions, both on civilians and companies. In order to compensate for the massive economic losses suffered during the lockdown period, many sectors are being pushed to combat these losses currently. One such sector is the energy industry: with fossil fuels taking a big hit, many companies have been permitted to sidestep guidelines in order to abate losses. However, the rate at which fossil fuels are being burned is surprising many scientists. 

As SBS News explains, “in April, fossil fuel combustion was roughly 17 percent lower than they were in 2019, as governments ordered people to stay home, employees stopped driving to work, factories idled, and airlines grounded their flights… by mid-June, as countries eased their lockdowns, emissions had ticked up to just 5 percent below the 2019 average.” In many countries, current carbon emissions have already matched the amount before the beginning of the pandemic.

However, there is some good news for climate change activists: experts estimate that 2020 emission levels will be 4-7 percent lower than that of 2019. This would be a historic period — as scientists Rob Jackson puts it — “A 5 percent change in global emissions is enormous, we haven’t seen a drop like that since at least World War II.” 

While the effects of the pandemic on energy use may have provided us with an opportunity to improve our methods of energy consumption overall, ultimately, this seems unlikely on a global stage. Worldwide, economies have been hit hard, and a rapid financial revival is imperative for almost all nations — the easiest way to achieve this would be through permitting non-renewable, less green techniques that would undoubtedly provide immediate economic benefits, but would also negatively impact the climate in the long run. While many cities have taken steps to implement eco-friendly modes of energy use and transportation — like Paris and Milan, who have introduced more bike lanes — these are just small steps that may be outweighed by the bigger picture. As Professor David Victor states, “Many governments are scrambling to recover economically and not paying as much attention to the environment.”

Thus, the seemingly reduced threat of the virus in many nations has led to an ease of numerous restrictions, allowing for the swift return of many non-renewable sources of energy. While this may pose a benefit upon first glance, the dire economic states of many nations will need to be addressed, therefore permitting increased fossil fuel use.

NASA Finishes Testing with Sentinel-6 Satellite That Can Help Learn More about Preventing Global Warming

by Anshul Dash

NASA has recently finished testing the Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich satellite, which is set to launch in November. The satellite’s purpose is to find out more about global warming’s effects on the oceans, coastlines, and weather by collecting accurate data on sea level. Rigorous testing was done to ensure that the satellite can perform well in the harsh conditions of space.

The Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich satellite was built as a part of the Copernicus Sentinel-6/Jason-CS (Continuity of Service) mission. The mission is an effort by the US and Europe to launch two identical satellites five years apart. The satellite will join an already existing set of satellites called the Copernicus Constellation of Satellites. This set of satellites represents the European Union’s Observation Program. Once the satellites reach orbit, they will start collecting sea level data for almost all of the world’s oceans, at 90%. The data collected will be added to a 30-year-old database created by the US and the European Union. In addition to collecting sea level data, the satellite will measure the temperature and humidity of Earth’s atmosphere, which in turn provides useful information for hurricane predictions and weather forecasts in general. Scientists’ strong belief in the connection between the ocean and the atmosphere is the main reason behind collecting this data. Heat causes sea levels to rise since seawater expands in higher temperatures.

The first test that the engineers performed was the vibration test. They replicated the shaking movement of the satellite to simulate its condition when attached to the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket during its blast into orbit. The satellite was then placed in a big vacuum chamber and exposed to extreme temperatures that it could encounter in space, from 65 to minus 180 degrees Celsius (149 to minus 292 degrees Fahrenheit). The second test was the acoustics test, which was conducted to make the satellite could withstand loud noises that might occur during the launch. The engineers tested this by placing the satellite in a chamber with enormous speakers. They then blasted the speakers with four 1 minute intervals of sound, with the loudest interval going to 140 decibels. The final test performed was the electromagnetic compatibility test. This test ensured that the electronics and sensors on the satellite wouldn’t interfere with each other while collecting data. This test was done differently than planned due to social distancing rules being enforced because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the tests were being conducted in Germany, the engineers in California worked during the night, from midnight to 10 AM. They communicated with their colleagues from Germany with phone calls, video conferences, chat rooms, and text messages. However, the test was still a success despite the inconveniences.

Since the Copernicus Sentinel-6/Jason-CS mission is a US-European Union joint mission, many space agencies are taking part in this mission. NASA is contributing to this mission by equipping each of the Sentinel-6 satellites with three science instrumental payloads: the Global Navigation Satellite System – Radio Occultation, the Advanced Microwave Radiometer, and the Laser Reflector Array. In addition to providing these payloads, NASA is also providing launch services for these satellites, ground control services, science data processors for these instruments, and general support for the international Ocean Surface Topography Science Team.

New Jersey Becomes First State to Require Schools to Include Climate Change in their Curriculum

by Daanyal Raja

New Jersey has become the first state to require schools to incorporate climate change into their curricula. The state’s Board of Education adopted new guidelines which requires climate change to be taught throughout all K-12 schools. The initiative to integrate climate change into student learning was led by the state’s First Lady, Tammy Murphy, who met with over 130 educators within the past year. First Lady Murphy strongly advocated for this change because New Jersey has become a state at the forefront of climate change. “In New Jersey, we have already begun to experience the effects of climate change, from our disappearing shorelines, to harmful algal blooms in our lakes, super storms producing torrential rain, and summers that are blazing hot,” the First Lady told The Planetary Press. “Decades of short-sighted decision-making has fueled this crisis and now we must do all we can to help our children solve it. This generation of students will feel the effects of climate change more than any other, and it is critical that every student is provided an opportunity to study and understand the climate crisis through a comprehensive, interdisciplinary lens.”

The new guidelines will be implemented into the school curriculum by September 2021. They will be taught to over 1.4 million students and vary across seven different subject areas: Social Studies, Technology, Visual and Performing Arts, World Languages, 21st Century Life and Careers, Science, and Comprehensive Health and Physical Education.

When asked about New Jersey’s recent curriculum changes, former U.S. Vice President Al Gore said, “I am incredibly proud that [they are] the first state in the nation to fully integrate climate education in their K-12 curricula.” Gore then stated that the leaders of tomorrow should be educated on climate change in order to equip them with needed knowledge that can be used to combat it and implement solutions. In this venture, New Jersey joins a small group of countries that have had mandated environmental education in place for several years. Tracey Ritchie, Director of Education at Earth Day Network, reports that India, Kenya, Brazil, Colombia, Japan, Tanzania, China, and Finland all have courses about the issue in their classrooms.

EPA Ruling Seeks to Discount Science and Aid the Fossil Fuel Industry

By Kaushal Kumar and Sudhit Rao

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was founded in the seventies with the sole goal of protecting the environment from harmful contamination. It has since been regarded as successful and extremely effective in its endeavors. However, with Trump’s elected officials under control, the goals of the EPA have shifted to instead benefit large fossil fuel companies and push back restrictions set in place by previous administrations.  

The newest rule that the EPA is pushing for is called “Strengthening Transparency in Regulatory Science,” but don’t let the name fool you. The name was specifically chosen to make the bill seem more appealing and to encourage members of the congress to accept the bill, even though the motives and reasoning for the passing of the bill are corrupt, and contradicts the role that the EPA is supposed to play in the US. In reality, this bill was passed to help strengthen the fossil fuel industry and try to prevent climate scientists from regulating factories in the industry.

The bill will effectively allow the EPA to ignore any scientific data or study where all of the information about the study is not fully available to the American public. This means that if things like private information of participants in studies are not made available to the general public, the EPA can invalidate the study and move forward without taking into consideration the findings. 

This would be a huge win for fossil fuel companies, as they are the ones who are usually targeted by scientists to ensure that their procedures are sustainable and are not too damaging or dangerous, and without the EPA having to listen to these scientists, they will not have to ask for these large gas and oil companies to regulate their production.

Many scientists and public health experts have criticized the proposed ruling and have spoken out against it. The American Association for Advancement of Science said that the proposed ruling would “exclude the best available science from informing EPA regulations, making it difficult for the agency to fulfill its mission to protect environmental and human health.” Steve Pierson and Roger Peng, well known biostatisticians petitioned for the proposition to be dropped and said, in an article, that it “weakens EPA’s scientific process and undermines its mission to protect the environment and the health of the U.S. population.”

This proposition seeks to ignore science while instead benefiting the giants in the fossil fuel industry and destroying our already depreciating state of our environment. Only time will tell the magnitude of damage this proposed rule might have on Mother Nature.

Hawaii sees Environmental Benefits amid Economic Crash Caused by Pandemic

by Ritvik Dutta

With over 5 million cases in the first six months of its inception, the novel coronavirus has created a widespread state of panic around the world. From the rich to the poor, everyone is feeling the disastrous effects of this global pandemic. Nothing, however, feels the brunt of the blow any more than the many tourist attractions around the world and their affiliated businesses. 

The economy of Hawaii has always thrived on the state’s tourist attractions, as tourism constituted 23% of the state’s economy up till the forced closures of American businesses and travel in March of 2020. In the light of recent events, the dependence on tourism to maintain a healthy economy has caused the devastating economic crash of many Hawaiian cities, with the statewide unemployment rate hovering around 22%. In fact, in March, the unemployment rate in the Kahului district in Maui, Hawaii, was around 2.2%. Now, however, this number has since been reported to have increased to around 35%, which is 10% higher than the unemployment rate during the Great Depression. In an interview conducted by ABC News, Carl Bonham, executive director of the Economic Research Organization at the University of Hawaii, commented that “Because [Hawaii relies] completely on air travel, when you shut down tourism with a 14-day quarantine and you go from 30,000 airline passengers per day to a few hundred, that’s a very different situation from a place that may still be getting some visitors by car.”

Although the current economic situation seems to be dire, the natural environment of Hawaii is surely improving. With apparent changes in the environment such as booming fisheries and healthier wildlife, officials are taking note and are currently in the process of pushing out a new system that renders tourism healthier and more feasible for the long-term survival of the Hawaiian environment. KUA, an organization determined to establish community-based natural resource management, has already compiled and pushed a list of possible post-quarantine changes to the state government in hopes of possible implementation. They hope that this period can be used to reassess and reset the environmental imbalance that has been left behind by the many years of heavy tourism within the state but ultimately concede that not all the Hawaiian islands will agree with the government’s decision and carry on life as they had before the pandemic. 

In the end, the economic ruin felt by Hawaii has ushered in awareness of the detrimental effects of mass tourism within the state. In an interview conducted by the Thomson Reuters Foundation, Alfredo Coro, the vice mayor of the Philippines city of Del Carmen, commented on the overall internationally observed improvement of environmental health. He stated “I think it sheds a lot of light on the reality that maybe we should get back to the land and manage (it) properly so that we can take care of our people, rather than rely on outside sources.” Whether or not this reality is one that Hawaiians choose to pursue, however, remains left to be seen.